Age, Biography and Wiki
Anders Behring Breivik was born on 13 February, 1979 in Oslo, Norway. Discover Anders Behring Breivik's Biography, Age, Height, Physical Stats, Dating/Affairs, Family and career updates. Learn How rich is He in this year and how He spends money? Also learn how He earned most of networth at the age of 41 years old?
|Age||42 years old|
|Born||13 February 1979|
We recommend you to check the complete list of Famous People born on 13 February. He is a member of famous with the age 42 years old group.
Anders Behring Breivik Height, Weight & Measurements
At 42 years old, Anders Behring Breivik height is 6′ 0″ .
|Body Measurements||Not Available|
|Eye Color||Not Available|
|Hair Color||Not Available|
Dating & Relationship status
He is currently single. He is not dating anyone. We don't have much information about He's past relationship and any previous engaged. According to our Database, He has no children.
Anders Behring Breivik Net Worth
His net worth has been growing significantly in 2020-2021. So, how much is Anders Behring Breivik worth at the age of 42 years old? Anders Behring Breivik’s income source is mostly from being a successful . He is from Norwegian. We have estimated Anders Behring Breivik's net worth, money, salary, income, and assets.
|Net Worth in 2021||$1 Million - $5 Million|
|Salary in 2020||Under Review|
|Net Worth in 2019||Pending|
|Salary in 2019||Under Review|
|Source of Income|
Anders Behring Breivik Social Network
|Wikipedia||Anders Behring Breivik Wikipedia|
His family name is Breivik, while Behring, his mother's maiden name, is his middle name and not part of the family name. His family name comes from Breivika in Hadsel, and literally means "broad vik" or "broad bay." On 9 June 2017, Norwegian newspaper Verdens Gang reported Breivik had changed his legal name to Fjotolf Hansen.
On 5 August, media said that Storrvik claims that the judge [scheduled to rule in the trial] is partial; the judge was recused. The trial is scheduled to start 10 January 2017; one earlier date was rejected by Breivik's lawyer, Storrvik.
The appeal was heard in Borgarting lagmannsrett, which issued its judgment on 1 March 2017. The Court of Appeals ruled that solitary confinement did not violate Breivik's rights, and all recommendations were voided.
On 8 June 2017, Norway's Supreme Court upheld the verdict saying that there was no basis for a different conclusion than that by the Court of Appeals.
He is isolated from the other inmates, and only has contact with health care workers and guards. The type of isolation that Breivik has experienced in prison is what the ECtHR calls relative social isolation, according to a verdict of 2016 in Oslo District Court. In Europe it is not uncommon to grant compensatory measures to prisoners that are being held in isolation for several years. As of 2016, he has an electric typewriter and an Xbox (without internet connection) in his cell. Previously, when the original verdict was upheld in September 2012, his permission for access to a computer (without internet) in his prison cell ended.
Since 2013 Breivik has been held at Telemark Prison. As with all convicts his letters are vetted before sending to prevent further crimes or hate attacks. After he came to Skien Prison, 5 out of 300 letters that he had sent had not been confiscated, he testified in court in 2016. He added, "Of the 200 forms regarding prison visits that I have mailed, all have been confiscated." By 2016 around 4,000 postal items had been sent to or from Breivik, and about 15 percent of these (600 items) had been confiscated. On 11 March 2016 political scientist Ingeborg Kjos was copied in on a letter from Breivik to the Ministry of Justice that had taken over a year and a half to reach her; the letter did not advocate violence.
During 15—18 March 2016, Breivik was the plaintiff in a civil trial. The Ministry of Justice and Public Security was the defendant in court, since the Correctional Service (which was being sued) was subordinate to the ministry. The verdict was appealed; in court of appeals a trial was scheduled for January 2017 and took place (see below).
On 6 March 2016, media said that Oslo District Court had again refused to allow the press to join a walk-through of Breivik's prison cell in the following week. The second request had included the suggestion that one person, with a gagging order in place, could represent the entire press corps, while joining the walk-through.
On 18 March 2016 after the court was adjourned, the room where the trial had been held was turned back into the prison gymnasium.
On 20 April 2016 District Court Judge Helen Andenæs Sekulic gave her verdict. The verdict said that the conditions of his imprisonment breached Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, but that Article 8 of the Convention had not been violated—confiscation of letters had been justified. The government was also ordered to pay Norwegian kroner 330,937.5 ($40,373) for the plaintiff's legal expenses incurred by the court case. (Breivik could not receive the money, but his lawyer could upon the verdict being upheld.) Breivik was not in any courtroom when he received the verdict; media said that his copy would be faxed [to the prison].
On 21 April 2016 news media said that Ole Kristoffer Borhaug (the fengselsleder at Telemark Prison of which Skien Prison is an affiliate) said that the prison regimen for Breivik would not be lightened, in part because the verdict has not been officially upheld, and there are regulations preventing high security prisoners from interacting with prisoners of other categories.
As of 2016, Breivik is still receiving pro bono legal aid from the law firm of Øystein Storrvik; previously the firm of Geir Lippestad did pro bono representation of Breivik (after the 2012 trial). Legal aid during criminal trials has been paid by the government, as is the norm in the country.
Norwegian author Unni Turrettini's bestselling book The Mystery of the Lone Wolf Killer: Anders Behring Breivik and the Threat of Terror in Plain Sight examines the mind of Breivik and the phenomenon of the lone wolf killer and how they manifest themselves, delving into criminal psychology. Turrettini discusses in her book how these "lone wolves" can be identified only by observation by the communities within which they attempt to form personal connections. The book was winner of the 2016 Killer Nashville Silver Falchion Winner for Best Nonfiction book.
Since 2015 Breivik has received visits from a prison visitor — a military chaplain (ranked major) — every two weeks. His mother visited him five times before her death in 2013 and researcher Mattias Gardell interviewed Breivik in 2014, but no other visitors requested by Breivik have been granted access.
He has been enrolled since 2015 in the bachelor's degree program in political science at the University of Oslo, with a prison official providing him with materials; he does not have internet access. In 2015 he claimed in a letter that harsh prison conditions had forced him to drop out of the course. According to a March 2016 statement by his lawyer, Øystein Storrvik [no] , Breivik had become a Nazi in prison.
In September 2015, Breivik again threatened a hunger strike, because of deteriorating prison conditions, but delayed in order to sue the Norwegian Government over prison conditions.
At the start of the third day of the trial, Storrvik introduced a report from the "prevention section" at [the office of] the Parliamentary Ombudsman, dated 11 November 2015, regarding a series of visits that year by the ombudsman; the report said that Breivik was being held at a section where sometimes there was only one prisoner. Storrvik read from the report that "The limitations on visits at the time of the inspection [by the Parliamentary Ombudsman] seemed quite strict". He said that in that section of the prison, it should expand the planned community between prisoners and employees and consider other measures to minimise the risk of isolation damage. At that section the prison should evaluate alternative possibilities for recreation in fresh air, in addition to the concrete exercise yard. The report recommended that the prison should discontinue the visual surveillance of health-related conversations that occur with a glass wall between prisoner and health personnel.
The third witness was Bjørn Draugedalen, a general practitioner working one day per week at Skien Prison. His first consultation with Breivik was held in a recreation room in avdeling for særlig høy sikkerhet, a high-security unit. Draugedalen shook hands with Breivik, with five prison officers present; all the later consultations (until the trial) were held with a glass wall separating them. Storrvik asked "This change, when another prisoner arrived [and started to live in the same prison section], which resulted in Breivik's movement being restricted—did you consider to go up there to view [his living conditions or] how things were"?; Draugedalen answered "We have to deal with changes done by the Corrections Services". The judge interjected, and she said that the Correction Services likely would listen to health care workers; Draugedalen replied that "We did not see any extra value then, regarding visiting him in the [prison] section". At 12:36 Draugedalen said that he has not been notified that Breivik has discontinued his [college/university] studies.
The seventh witness was Jørgen Spangen Iversen, an advisor at the Correctional Agency. Iversen was asked why Breivik was transferred to Skien rather than to Ringerike Prison; Iversen answered that he became a case-worker in 2014, and he was not involved in the transfer.
Summing up the case for Breivik, Storrvik said: "For some reason, in Norway it has been established that in a female prison, a male prison officer cannot strip search a prisoner, but in a male prison it is ok that females are present. This is offensive—I do not see any alternatives". He then talked about the case of strip searches of prisoner Piechowicz in Poland. In that case the court was not convinced by the Polish government's arguments that the systematic, humiliating, daily searches were necessary to secure the prison. He continued: "He was also awoken at night, but he had 147 visits that compensated", and Piechowicz's isolation lasted for a shorter period; Storrvik said: "Note that one calls it isolation, even though he had one cellmate". Storrvik said that "the verdict [of] Piechowicz vs. Poland point to a breach of EMK in our case".
Storrvik said: "In my opinion there is not a complete concurrence between risk analyses and measures in our case. Risk analyses have at an early stage come with suggestions for measures [and these have not been followed up] (...) For example, removing the glass wall during visits and the possibility of introducing fellow prisoner, has been discussed at such an early stage that there should be a good reason for why Rosenqvist's advice has not been followed". Storrvik said that "The main problem for the government in this case is that the discrepancies between well-founded—in the context of security—suggestions from one of those who knows this case the best has not been followed".
Storrvik said that there had been no inspections by agencies tasked with oversight, as far as he knew, until the Parliamentary Ombudsman came. Breivik's lawyer referred to anal inspections [—visual or manual body cavity searches]; he disagreed with Emberland's view that there was a difference regarding anal inspection as referred to in ECHR verdicts in other cases, and the squats that Breivik must perform while naked; Storrvik's opinion is that Ila lacks concrete reasons for all the inspections.
Storrvik said Breivik's [previous] verdict "indicates a mental vulnerability. If that is not enough, Breivik appears—by my standards—confused in court".
Emberland said that "Storrvik is quoting from the dissenting opinions from verdicts of the ECHR"—at least as much as he is quoting the majority opinions of the verdicts.
The government's chief lawyer in the trial, Marius Emberland, had voiced his opinion about the verdict before the appeal; his opinion was criticized by the leader of the Norwegian Judges' Association, Ingjerd Thune: "I clearly understand that many react. I have never heard a lawyer speak in that manner—ever. That was surprising"; lawyer Frode Sulland said that one gets the impression that Office of the Attorney General "does not respect the justice system, and they still think that they are right, even when the court thinks they are wrong"; Emberland eventually recognised that some of his verbal comments can be interpreted as arrogant, adding that "They really weren't meant that way".
In a letter sent by Breivik to international media in January 2014, Breivik states that he exploited "counterjihadist" rhetoric in order to protect "ethno-nationalists" and start a media hunt against "anti-nationalist counterjihadist"-supporters, in a strategy he calls "double psychology". Breivik further states that he strives for a "pure Nordic ideal", advocating the establishment of a similar party in Norway to the (now-defunct) neo-Nazi Party of the Swedes, and identifying himself as a part of "Western Europe's fascist movement". Moreover, he states that his "support" for Israel is limited for it to function as a place to deport "disloyal Jews". During the trial in 2012, Breivik listed as his influences a number of neo-Nazi activists, as well as perpetrators of attacks against immigrants and leftists, considering them "heroes".
In letters to foreign media outlets he told about his demands (in 2013) to prison authorities "including easier communication with the outside world and a PlayStation 3 to replace the current PlayStation 2, because it offers more suitable games"; media reported in 2014 about demands that he would starve himself to death if refused "access to a sofa and a bigger gym"; furthermore he said that "Other inmates have access to adult games while I only have the right to play less interesting kids' games. One example is "Rayman Revolution", a game aimed at three year-olds," Breivik complained to prison officials."
The second witness was Knut Bjarkeid, Chief Warden at Ila Prison. Storrvik confronted Bjarkeid with a document regarding [prison] Section G being turned [in part] into a "particularly high security department". He read: "There are obvious limits to how long he can be in Section G"; the document was written by Bjarkeid. Storrvik said that "The words are here, obviously there are limits to how long he shall be isolated. This was in 2012. He is still in total isolation". After Bjarkeid left the witness stand, Emberland read out loud from a letter that Breivik had written, dated 29 September 2013; in the letter Breivik reported several persons to the police; the Asker and Bærum Police District investigated and later dropped the investigation; Breivik's letter detailed the number of strip searches, "grip manoeuvres", and handcuffings he had undergone.
The fourth witness was Haukeland, an MD for prisoners at Ila Prison. At 13:46 Storrvik read from [Breivik's medical] record dated 5 February 2013 that Breivik intends to recreate less in fresh air because of the strip searches that follow; Storrvik asked Haukeland: "The fact that he goes outside less, to avoid being strip searched, was that discussed as a problem?; Haukeland answered "No, that was not discussed [among the health care workers or] in the health section". At 13:51 the judge referred to nightly inspections every half hour, and Haukeland answers that he cannot remember; the judge asked "Were you the ones who recommended that"?; Haukeland replied "No (...)".
The fifth witness was Margit Kise, a section leader at Skien Prison, who served from September 2013 to May 2015 in section A and H. The sixth witness was Tore Stenshagen, also a section leader at Skien, who served during the third quarter of 2015. Stenshagen testified that sometimes he sits down [in Breivik's cell] and talks with Breivik, and sometimes they are accompanied by only one prison officer.
On 23 March 2013, Breivik's mother died from complications from cancer. On the same day media said that mother and son "took farewell during a meeting at Ila last week. Breivik was permitted to move himself out from behind the glass wall of the visit room—to give his mother a farewell hug". Breivik had asked for permission by the prison officials to attend his mother's funeral service; the request was rejected.
After the attack, the Progress Party immediately distanced itself from Breivik's actions and ideas. At a 2013 press conference Ketil Solvik-Olsen said that Breivik "left us [the party] because we were too liberal".
On 17 August 2013, journalist Marit Christensen informed the Norwegian press that for the last year of Wenche Behring Breivik's life, she had been her confidant, and that a book based on Christensen's interviews with her would be published as a book in late 2013 under the title The Mother. On 14 September 2013 Verdens Gang said that before Wenche Behring Breivik died, she hired a lawyer to prevent Christensen from publishing the book. The book was nevertheless published in October 2013, and was widely criticized; on the basis of Wenche Behring Breivik's opposition to the book, for inclusion of material not relevant to understanding what motivated Anders Behring Breivik, and for character assassinations of still living people.
His trial began on 16 April 2012, with closing arguments made on 22 June 2012. On 24 August 2012, Oslo District Court delivered its verdict, finding Breivik sane and guilty of murdering 77 people. He was sentenced to 21 years in prison, in a form of preventive detention that required a minimum of 10 years incarceration and the possibility of one or more extensions for as long as he is deemed a danger to society. This is the maximum penalty in Norway. Breivik announced that he did not recognize the legitimacy of the court and therefore did not accept its decision—he decided not to appeal because this would legitimize the authority of the Oslo District Court. In 2016, Breivik sued the Norwegian Correctional Service, claiming that his solitary confinement violated his human rights. A subsequent court ruling found that his rights had not been violated, despite an earlier ruling, and in June 2017, Breivik filed a complaint with the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), which dismissed his case in June 2018.
Breivik was kept at Ila Prison after arrest. There, he had at his disposal three prison cells: one where he could rest, sleep, and watch DVD movies or television, a second that was set up for him to use a PC without Internet connection, and a third with gym equipment. Only selected prison staff with special qualifications were allowed to work around him, and the prison management aimed to not let his presence as a high-security prisoner affect any of the other inmates. Subsequent to the January 2012 lifting of letters and visitors censorship for Breivik, he received several inquiries from private individuals, and he devoted his time to writing back to like-minded people. According to one of his attorneys, Breivik was curious to learn whether his manifesto has begun to take root in society. Breivik's attorneys, in consultation with Breivik, considered whether to have some of his interlocutors called as witnesses during the trial. Several media, both Norwegian and international, have requested interviews with Breivik. The first such was cancelled by the prison administration following a background check of the journalist in question. A second interview was agreed to by Breivik, and the prison requested a background check to be done by the police in the country where the journalist is from. No information has been given about the media organisations in question.
The outcome of Breivik's first competency evaluation was fiercely debated in Norway by mental health experts, over the court-appointed psychiatrists' opinion and the country's definition of criminal insanity. An extended panel of experts from the Norwegian Board of Forensic Medicine reviewed the submitted report and approved it "with no significant remarks". News in the meantime emerged that the psychiatric medical staff in charge of treating prisoners at Ila Detention and Security Prison did not make any observations that suggested he suffered from either psychosis, depression or was suicidal. According to senior psychiatrist Randi Rosenqvist, who was commissioned by the prison to examine Breivik, he rather appeared to have personality disorders. Counsels representing families and victims filed requests that the court order a second opinion, while the prosecuting authority and Breivik's lawyer initially did not want new experts to be appointed. On 13 January 2012, after much public pressure, the Oslo District Court ordered a second expert panel to evaluate Breivik's mental state. He initially refused to cooperate with new psychiatrists. He later changed his mind and in late February a new period of psychiatric observation, this time using different methods than the first period, was begun.
If the original diagnosis had been upheld by the court, it would have meant that Anders Behring Breivik could not be sentenced to a prison term. The prosecution could instead have requested that he be detained in a psychiatric hospital. Medical advice would then have determined whether or not the courts decided to release him at some later point. If considered a perpetual danger to society, Breivik could have been kept in confinement for life. Shortly after the second period of pre-trial psychiatric observation was begun, the prosecution said it expected Breivik would be declared legally insane. On 10 April 2012, the second psychiatric evaluation was published with the conclusion that Breivik was not psychotic during the attacks and he was not psychotic during their evaluation. Instead, they diagnosed antisocial personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder. Breivik expressed hope at being declared sane in a letter sent to several Norwegian newspapers shortly before his trial, he wrote about the prospect of being sent to a psychiatric ward: "I must admit this is the worst thing that could have happened to me as it is the ultimate humiliation. To send a political activist to a mental hospital is more sadistic and evil than to kill him! It is a fate worse than death."
On 8 June 2012, Professor of Psychiatry Ulrik Fredrik Malt testified in court as an expert witness, saying he found it unlikely that Breivik had schizophrenia. According to Malt, Breivik primarily suffered from Asperger syndrome, Tourette syndrome, narcissistic personality disorder and possibly paranoid psychosis. Malt cited a number of factors in support of his diagnoses, including deviant behaviour as a child, extreme specialization in Breivik's study of weapons and bomb technology, strange facial expression, a remarkable way of talking, and an obsession with numbers. Eirik Johannesen disagreed, concluding that Breivik was lying and was not delusional or psychotic. Johannesen had observed and spoken to Breivik for more than 20 hours.
In the pre-trial hearing, February 2012, Breivik read a prepared statement demanding to be released and treated as a hero for his "pre-emptive attack against traitors" accused of planning cultural genocide. He said, "They are committing, or planning to commit, cultural destruction, including deconstruction of the Norwegian ethnic group and deconstruction of Norwegian culture. This is the same as ethnic cleansing."
On 24 August 2012, Breivik was adjudged sane and sentenced to containment—a special form of a prison sentence that can be extended indefinitely; with an approximate period of 21 years and a minimum time of 10 years, the maximum penalty in Norway. Breivik did not appeal and on 8 September media announced that the verdict was final.
He is imprisoned at Telemark Prison's Skien Department, about 100 kilometres (62 mi) southwest of Oslo. On 23 July 2012 he transferred from Ila Detention and Security Prison in Bærum to Skien; on 28 September 2012 he transferred back to Ila; since September 2013 he has been back at Telemark.
In 2012, Breivik planned to set up an organisation he called the Conservative Revolutionary Movement which he envisioned consisting of around 50 right-wing activists in Europe, as well as an organization for imprisoned right-wing activists; Breivik has written to, among others, Peter Mangs and Beate Zschäpe; media claimed in 2014 that Mangs had received letters. In 2012 he spent 8–10 hours per day writing. He has said that he wants to write three books: the first being his own account of the events on the day of the attacks, the second discussing the ideology underlying his actions, and a third on his visions for the future.
In November 2012, Breivik wrote a 27-page letter of complaint to the prison authorities about the security restrictions he was being held under, claiming that the prison director personally wanted to punish him. Among his complaints were that his cell is not adequately heated and he has to wear three layers of clothing to stay warm, guards interfere with his strictly-planned daily schedule, his cell is poorly decorated and has no view, his reading lamp is inadequate, guards supervise him while he is brushing his teeth and shaving and put indirect mental pressure on him to finish quickly by tapping their feet while waiting, he is "not having candy" and is served cold coffee, and he is strip-searched daily, sometimes by female guards. Authorities only lifted one minor restriction against Breivik; his rubber safety pen, which he described as an "almost indescribable manifestation of sadism," was replaced with an ordinary pen.
The trial started on 15 March, when Oslo District Court convened inside Skien Prison. Upon arrival, after police removed his handcuffs, Breivik shook hands with his lawyers, and thereafter faced the gallery and performed a Nazi-style salute. A lawyer from the Office of the Attorney General said that of Breivik's incoming and outgoing mail, through the postal system, around 15 percent (or 600 pieces of mail out of around 4,000) had been confiscated. Øystein Storrvik, the head of Breivik's legal team, told the court about Breivik's letter of complaint to the government in 2012 which detailed being awakened by flashlight as often as every half-hour.
In Aftenposten, Ulrik Fredrik Malt [expert witness at the 2012 trial] said that "the mass murderer is mentally quite ill, and that's being undercommunicated".
On 14 August 2012, several Norwegian politicians and media outlets received an email from someone claiming to be Breivik's "deputy", demanding that Breivik be released, and making more threats against Norwegian society.
Breivik had no declared income in 2009 and his assets amounted to 390,000 kroner ($72,063), according to Norwegian tax authority figures. He states that in January 2010 his funds were "depleting gradually". On 23 June 2011, a month before the attacks, he paid the outstanding amount on his nine credit cards so he could have access to funds during his preparations.
In late June or early July 2011, he moved to a rural area south of Åsta in Åmot, Hedmark county, about 140 km (87 mi) north-east of Oslo, the site of his farm. As he admits in his manifesto he used the company as a cover to legally obtain large amounts of artificial fertiliser and other chemicals for the manufacturing of explosives. A farming supplier sold Breivik's company six tonnes of fertiliser in May. The newspaper Verdens Gang reported that after Breivik bought a small quantity of an explosive primer from an online shop in Poland, his name was among 60 passed to the Police Security Service (PST) by the Norwegian Customs Service as having used the store to buy products. Speaking to the newspaper, Jon Fitje of PST said the information they found gave no indication of anything suspicious. He sets the cost of the preparations for the attacks at €317,000 – "130,000 out of pocket and 187,500 euros in lost revenue over three years." [sic]
On 22 July 2011, Breivik detonated a fertilizer bomb outside the tower block housing the office of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg in Oslo, resulting in eight deaths.
On 25 July 2011, Breivik was charged with violating paragraph 147a of the Norwegian criminal code, "destabilising or destroying basic functions of society" and "creating serious fear in the population", both of which are acts of terrorism under Norwegian law. He was ordered held for eight weeks, the first four in solitary confinement, pending further court proceedings. The custody was extended in subsequent hearings. The indictment was ready in early March 2012. The Director of Public Prosecutions had initially decided to censor the document to the public, leaving out the names of the victims as well as details about their deaths. Due to the public's reaction, this decision was reversed prior to its release. On 30 March, the Borgarting Court of Appeal announced that it had scheduled the expected appeal case for 15 January 2013. It would be heard in the same specially-constructed courtroom where the initial criminal case was tried.
Breivik underwent his first examination by court-appointed forensic psychiatrists in 2011. The psychiatrists diagnosed him with paranoid schizophrenia, concluding that he had developed the disorder over time and was psychotic both when he carried out the attacks and during the observation. He was also diagnosed with abuse of non-dependence-producing substances antecedent of 22 July. The psychiatrists consequently found Breivik to be criminally insane.
Since August 2011, Breivik has been imprisoned in an SHS section (a prison section with "particularly high security"—særlig høy sikkerhet). Between the inception of SHS, in 2002, and 2016 Norway had only imprisoned ten or eleven prisoners under these conditions, of which Breivik's term has been the longest.
Breivik prepared a document titled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence. It has 1,518 pages, credited to "Andrew Berwick" (the Anglicized name of Anders Behring Breivik). Breivik admitted in court that it was mostly other people's writings he had copied and pasted from different websites. The file was e-mailed to 1,003 addresses about 90 minutes before the bomb blast in Oslo. The document describes two years of preparation of unspecified attacks, supposedly planned for late 2011, involving a rented Volkswagen Crafter van (small enough not to require a truck driving licence) loaded with 1,160 kilograms (2,560 lb) of ammonium nitrate/fuel oil explosive (ANFO), a Ruger Mini-14 semi-automatic rifle, a Glock 34 pistol, personal armour including a shield, caltrops, and police insignias. It also reports that Breivik spent thousands of hours gathering email addresses from Facebook for distribution of the document, and that he rented a farm as a cover for a fake farming company buying fertilizer (3 tons for producing explosives and 3 tons of a harmless kind to avoid suspicion) and as a lab. It describes burying a crate with the armour in the woods in July 2010, collecting it on 4 July 2011, and abandoning his plan to replace it with survival gear because he did not have a second pistol. It also expresses support for far-right groups such as the English Defence League and paramilitaries such as the Scorpions.
Breivik claimed he had contact with the far-right English Defence League (EDL), a movement in the United Kingdom that has been accused of Islamophobia. He allegedly had extensive links with senior EDL members and wrote that he attended an EDL demonstration in Bradford. On 26 July 2011, EDL leader Tommy Robinson denounced Breivik and his attacks and has denied any official links with him.
On 31 July 2011, Interpol asked Maltese police to investigate Paul Ray, a former EDL member who blogs under the name "Lionheart." Ray conceded that he may have been an inspiration for Breivik, but deplored his actions.
Breivik gives his own code name in the organisation as Sigurd and that of his assigned "mentor" as Richard, after the twelfth-century crusaders and kings Sigurd Jorsalfar of Norway and Richard the Lionheart of England. He calls himself a one-man cell of this organisation, and claims that the group has several other cells in Western countries, including two more in Norway. On 2 August 2011 Breivik offered to provide information about these cells, but on unrealistic preconditions.
In 2010, he visited Prague in an attempt to buy illegal weapons. He was unable to obtain a weapon there and decided to get weapons through legal channels in Norway instead. He bought one semi-automatic 9 mm Glock 34 pistol legally by demonstrating his membership in a pistol club in the police application for a gun license, and the semi-automatic Ruger Mini-14 rifle by possessing a hunting license. Breivik's manifesto included writings detailing how he played video games such as World of Warcraft to relax, and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 for "training-simulation". He told a court in April 2012 that he trained for shooting using a holographic device while playing Call of Duty. He claimed it helped him gain target acquisition.
In May 2009, he founded a farming company under the name "Breivik Geofarm", described as a farming sole proprietorship set up to cultivate vegetables, melons, roots, and tubers.
Janne Kristiansen, then Chief of the Norwegian Police Security Service (PST), said Breivik "deliberately desisted from violent exhortations on the net [and] has more or less been a moderate, and has neither been part of any extremist network." He is reported to have written many posts on the Islam-critical website document.no. He also attended a meeting of "Documents venner" (Friends of Document), affiliated with the website, in late 2009. Due to the media attention on his Internet activity following the 2011 attacks, document.no compiled a complete list of comments made by Breivik on its website between September 2009 and June 2010.
In an online discussion on the Norwegian website Document.no on 6 December 2009, Breivik proposes to establish a Norwegian version of the EDL. Breivik saw this as the only way to stop left-wing radical groups like Blitz and SOS Rasisme from "harassing" Norwegian cultural conservatives. Following the establishment of the European Defence League, the Norwegian Defence League (NDL) launched in 2010. Breivik indeed became a member of this organization under the pseudonym "Sigurd Jorsalfar". Former head of the NDL, Lena Andreassen, claims that Breivik was ejected from the organization when she took over as leader in March 2011 because he was too extreme.
At the time of the attacks, Breivik was a member of the Lodge of St. Olaf at the Three Columns in Oslo and had displayed photographs of himself in partial Masonic regalia on his Facebook profile. In interviews after the attacks, his lodge said it had only minimal contact with him, and that when made aware of Breivik's membership, Grand Master of the Norwegian Order of Freemasons, Ivar A. Skaar, issued an edict immediately excluding him from the fraternity based upon the acts he carried out and the values that appear to have motivated them. According to the Lodge records, Breivik took part in a total of four meetings between his initiation in February 2007 and his exclusion from the order (one each to receive the first, second, and third degrees, and one other meeting) and held no offices or functions within the Lodge. Skaar said that although Breivik was a member of the Order, his actions showed that he was in no way a Mason.
According to Belarusian opposition figure Mikhail Reshetnikov, Anders Breivik underwent paramilitary training in a camp organised by retired KGB colonel Valery Lunev. According to Reshetnikov, Breivik visited Belarus three times and had lasting connections with the country. According to official data, Breivik visited Belarus only once, as a tourist in 2005. Norwegian prosecuting authorities claim that Breivik went to Belarus to meet a woman he had met on a dating website. This woman later visited him in Oslo.
Breivik was an active member of an Oslo shooting club between 2005 and 2007, and since 2010. According to the club, which banned him for life after the attacks, Breivik had taken part in 13 organized training sessions and one competition since June 2010. The club states that it does not evaluate the members' suitability regarding possession of weapons.
While still a juvenile, he was arrested, and was consequently rejected from the Norwegian Armed Forces. At the age of 20 he joined the anti-immigration/right-wing Progress Party, and chaired the local Vest Oslo branch of the party's youth organization during 2002. He left the Progress Party in 2006 and went on to join a gun club while also founding a company which he used to finance his planned terrorist attacks.
Breivik claims that in 2002 (at the age of 23) he started a nine-year-plan to finance the 2011 attacks, founding his own computer programming business while working at the customer service company. He claims that his company grew to six employees and "several offshore bank accounts", and that he made his first million kroner at the age of 24. He writes in his manifesto that he lost 2 million kroner on stock speculation, but still had about 2 million kroner to finance the attack. The company was later declared bankrupt and Breivik was reported for several breaches of the law. He then moved back to his mother's home, according to himself to save money. The first set of psychiatrists who evaluated him said in their report his mental health deteriorated at this stage and he went into a state of withdrawal and isolation. His declared assets in 2007 were about kr 630,000. (US$76,244), according to Norwegian tax authority figures. He claims that by 2008 he had about kr 2,000,000 (US$243,332) and nine credit cards giving him access to €26,000 in credit.
During his time in the Progress Party, he held two positions in the Progress Party's youth organisation FpU: he was the chair of the local Vest Oslo branch from January to October 2002, and a member of the board of the same branch from October 2002 till November 2004.
In his manifesto and during interrogation, Breivik claimed membership in an "international Christian military order", which he calls the new Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici (PCCTS, Knights Templar). According to Breivik, the order was established as an "anti-Jihad crusader-organisation" that "fights" against "Islamic suppression" in London in April 2002 by nine men: two Englishmen, a Frenchman, a German, a Dutchman, a Greek, a Russian, a Norwegian (apparently Breivik), and a Serb (supposedly the initiator, not present, but represented by Breivik). The compendium gives a "2008 estimate" that there are between 15 and 80 "Justiciar Knights" in Western Europe, and an unknown number of civilian members, and Breivik expects the order to take political and military control of Western Europe.
After an intense investigation assisted internationally by several security agencies, the Norwegian police have not found any evidence that a PCCTS network existed, or that the alleged 2002 London meeting ever took place. The police now view Breivik's claim as a figment of imagination in light of his schizophrenia diagnosis, and are increasingly confident that he had no accessories. The perpetrator still insists he belongs to an order and that his one-man cell was "activated" by another clandestine cell.
He was at first described by many in the media as a Christian fundamentalist, Christian terrorist, and nationalist. He states that the European Union is a project to create "Eurabia" and describes the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia as being authorised by "criminal western European and American leaders". In his writings Breivik states that "the Battle of Vienna in 1683 should be celebrated as the Independence Day for all Western Europeans as it was the beginning of the end for the second Islamic wave of Jihads". The manifesto urges the Hindu nationalists to drive Muslims out of India. It demands the forced deportation of all Muslims from Europe, based on the model of the Beneš decrees.
Breivik became a member of the Progress Party (FrP) in 1999. He paid his membership dues for the last time in 2004, and was removed from the membership lists in 2006.
Breivik attended Smestad Grammar School, Ris Junior High, Hartvig Nissens Upper Secondary School and Oslo Commerce School (1995–98). A former classmate has recalled that he was an intelligent student, physically stronger than others of the same age, who often took care of people who were bullied.
In his adolescence, Breivik's behaviour was described as having become rebellious. In his early teen years he was a prolific graffiti artist, part of the hip hop community in Oslo West. He took his graffiti much more seriously than his comrades did and was caught by the police on several occasions; child welfare services were notified once and he was fined on two occasions. According to Breivik's mother, after he was caught spraying graffiti on walls in 1995, at the age of 16, and fined, his father stopped contact with him. They have not been in contact since then. The opposite view is claimed by Breivik's father, that it was his son who broke off contact with him and that he would always have welcomed Anders despite his destructive activities. At this age he also broke off contact with the hip hop community after he fell out with his best friend.
In 1983 and 1984 some of Norway's top psychologists wanted to have Breivik forcibly removed from his mother, Wenche Behring. These psychologists worked at National Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Statens Senter for Barne- og Ungdomspsykiatri (the SSBU). They had placed a care order for the boy but this wasn't carried out by Barnevernet, Norway's state Child Welfare Service. After the attacks on the 22nd of July 2011 one of the psychologists who had observed Breivik as a child stated that "If Anders had been removed from his abusive home he would have developed altogether differently. His actions are essentially an extreme expression of the price society has to pay for the inadequacy of the Child Welfare Services."
In February 1983, on the advice of her neighbors, Breivik's mother sought help from the National Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (SSBU) in Oslo. There the mother then stayed during the day with Breivik and was observed by psychiatrists for about one month. The conclusion of the stay from the psychiatrists was that Breivik should be placed in the foster care system and had to be removed from his mother for him to develop normally. The justification for this was several observations. Breivik was almost completely void of any emotional engagement. He didn't show joy. He didn't cry when he was hurt. He made no attempts to play with other children. He was also extremely clean and became anxious when his toys weren't in order. Psychologists believed that he had become this way because of the negative reactions his mother displayed to any emotion he showed. They thought that she had punished him and reacted extremely negatively to him displaying emotions that had led him to become devoid of any visible emotions. His mother had also claimed that he is uncleanly and that she constantly had to care for him and run after him. Psychologists believed that Breivik had become this cleanly because of fear of punishment from his mother. He didn't show the normal level of uncleanliness of a four-year-old. Breivik seemed extremely careful and controlled. He had no repertoire on how to express emotions normally. During long phases of emotional voidness he would rarely erupt and display extreme uncontrolled emotions.
Reports of the staff said that his mother had told Breivik while she knew that she was being observed by health personnel that she "wished that he was dead". At the same time, she tied him to her and switched from being very affectionate to being extremely cruel from one minute to the other. This was an unacceptable situation for a four-year-old to be in, according to the psychiatrists. The report from 1983 stated "Anders is a victim of his mother's projections of paranoid-aggressive and sexual fears toward men in general", and "she projects onto him her own primitive, aggressive and sexual fantasies; all the qualities in men that she regards as dangerous and aggressive." Breivik reacted very negatively to his mother. He alternated between clinginess, petty aggression and extreme childishness. The final conclusion of the observation was that "The family is in dire need of help. Anders should be removed from the family and given a better standard of care; the mother is provoked by him and remains in an ambivalent position which prevents him from developing on his own terms. Anders has become an anxious, passive child that averts making contact. He displays a manic defense mechanism of restless activity and a feigned, deflecting smile. Considering the profoundly pathological relationship between Anders and his mother it is crucial to make an early effort to ward off a severely skewed development in the boy." However, Child Welfare Services did not follow this recommendation. They did not understand how harmful the treatment of his mother was for Breivik. Instead, he was placed in respite care only during the weekends. SSBU hoped that eventually he would be fully placed into foster care.
Breivik's mother moved back to Oslo in no. 18, Fritznersgate, where Jens Breivik had an apartment. The neighbors claimed that there were noises of fights and that the mother left her children completely alone for extended periods of time, while she was working as a nurse. In 1981 Breivik's mother applied for economic help and in 1982 she applied for respite care for her son. She says that she was overwhelmed with the boy and unable to care for him. She described him to be "clingy and demanding." Breivik was then placed with a young couple. This couple later told police that the mother, when bringing two-year-old Breivik to the house, had asked that he be allowed to touch the man's penis because he had no one to compare himself to in terms of appearance. 'All he ever saw were girls' parts. This suggests that Breivik had been sexually abused by the age of two already.
However when Breivik's father, Jens Breivik, learned of the situation he filed for custody. Although Breivik's mother had agreed to have him put in respite care, after Jens had filed for custody she demanded that Breivik be put back into full custody with her. Both the mother and father got lawyers involved. Eventually, the case was dropped because the Welfare Services thought that they wouldn't be able to provide enough evidence in court to warrant the placement of Breivik in foster care. One of the main reasons for this was the testimony of staff from the Vigelandsparken nursery, which Breivik had been attending since 1981. They described him as a happy child and claimed that nothing was wrong or had been wrong with him all along. During all of this the SSBU maintained their stances and said "urgent action is crucially needed to prevent a severely skewed development in the boy". The SSBU wrote Child Welfare Services a letter claiming that an order should be placed to have Breivik be removed by force. In 1984 a hearing in front of Barnevernsnemnda (the municipal child welfare committee) took place on whether Breivik's mother should lose custody of him. During the hearing, a young social worker who had never represented a case in court before was up against the experienced lawyer hired by Breivik's mother. She naturally won the case. It was ruled that the family should be supervised. However after only three visits the supervision was discontinued. Breivik was never again put into respite care or foster care.
Anders Behring Breivik (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈɑ̀nːəʂ ˈbèːrɪŋ ˈbræ̀ɪviːk] ( listen ) ; born 13 February 1979), since 2017 legally Fjotolf Hansen and also known by his pseudonym Andrew Berwick, is a Norwegian far-right terrorist who committed the 2011 Norway attacks. On 22 July 2011, he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo, then shot dead 69 participants of a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp on the island of Utøya. In July 2012, he was convicted of mass murder, causing a fatal explosion, and terrorism.
Breivik was born in Oslo on 13 February 1979, the son of Wenche Behring (1946–2013), a nurse, and Jens David Breivik (born 1935), a civil economist, who worked as a diplomat for the Norwegian Embassy in London and later in Paris. He spent the first year of his life in London until his parents divorced when he was a year old. His father, who later married a diplomat, fought for, but failed to achieve, custody. When Breivik was four, living in Fritzners gate in Oslo, two reports were filed expressing concern about his mental health, concluding that Anders ought to be removed from parental care. A psychologist in one of the reports made a note of the boy's peculiar smile, suggesting it was not anchored in his emotions but was rather a deliberate response to his environment. In another report by psychologists from Norway's centre for child and youth psychiatry (SSBU) concerns were raised about how his mother treated him: "She 'sexualised' the young Breivik, hit him, and frequently told him that she wished that he were dead." In the report Wenche Behring is described as "a woman with an extremely difficult upbringing, borderline personality disorder and an all-encompassing if only partially visible depression" who "projects her primitive aggressive and sexual fantasies onto him [Breivik]". The psychologist who wrote the report was later forbidden to give evidence in court by Behring, who herself was excused from testifying on health grounds.